From his debut in a six-page story in 1939 to his most recent portrayal by Christian Bale in the blockbuster The Dark Knight Rises, Batman is perhaps the world's most popular superhero. The continued relevance of the caped crusader could be attributed to his complex character, his dual identity, or his commitment to revenge and justice. But, as the contributors to this collection argue, it is the fans who-with the patience of Alfred, the loyalty of Commissioner Gordon, and the unbridled enthusiasm of Robin - have kept Batman at the forefront of popular culture for more than seven decades. Fan Phenomena: Batman explores the unlikely devotion to the Dark Knight, from his inauspicious beginnings on the comic book page to the cult television series of the 1960s and on to the critically acclaimed films and video games of today. Considering everything from convention cosplay to fan fiction that imagines the Joker as a romantic lead, the essays here acknowledge and celebrate fan responses that go far beyond the scope of the source material. And, the contributors contend, despite occasional dips in popularity, Batman's sustained presence in popular culture for more than seventy years is thanks in no small part to his fans' ardor. Packed with revealing interviews from all corners of the fan spectrum - including Paul Levitz, who rose through the ranks of fan culture to become the president of DC Comics, and Michael Uslan, who has produced every Batman adaptation since Tim Burton's blockbuster in 1989, as well as film reviewers, academics, movie buffs, comic store clerks, and costume-clad convention attendees - this book is sure to be a best seller in Gotham City, as well as everywhere Bruce Wayne's alter ego continues to intrigue and inspire.
UNTIL HE MET A WOMAN TOO HOT TO HOLD. One of the master historians of twentieth-century Europe, Walter Laqueur is renowned for his "gold standard" studies of fascism, Fan Phenomena: Batman free download pdf terrorism, and anti-Semitism. Here he describes how unplanned immigration policies and indifference coinciding with internal political and social crises have led to a continent-wide identity crisis. "Self-ghettoization" by immigrant groups has caused serious social and political divisions and intense resentment and xenophobia among native Europeans. Worse, widespread educational failure resulting in massive youth unemployment and religious or ideological disdain for the host country have bred extremist violence, as seen in the London and Madrid bombings and the Paris riots. Laqueur urges European policy makers to maintain strict controls with regard to the abuse of democratic freedoms by preachers of hate and to promote education, productive work, and integration among the new immigrants.
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